Accessory Dwelling Units
On August 8, City Council will consider a second and final read approval of amendments to the City's unified Development Ordinance to all Accessory Dwelling Units within Single-family homes. On July 11, City Council approved on ‘first read’ these regulations. Details of the provisions are provided below.
Here is the final version of the ordinance text that incorporates the modifications the majority of Council agreed to on July 11.
The August 8 ordinance contains the following provisions:
- One ADU is allowed only within a principal single-family dwelling;
- The space devoted to an ADU can be no larger than 40% of the area of the dwelling or 600 sq ft (whichever is greater);
- The property owner must reside on-site while the ADU is occupied;
- Not more than two people, not related to the owner, may live in the ADU (this is the current occupancy limit);
- The definition of ownership has greater detail;
- The definition of dwelling unit is more specific, including the allowance for “permanent cooking facilities’;
- Any exterior entrance may only be on the side or rear of the principal dwelling with a separate posted address.
- One on-site parking space shall be required, if the Zoning Administrator determines that more than 75% of the curb-side parking for the block where the ADU is located is occupied in the evening. Any additional on-site parking space may not be accessed by a new curb cut (alley access would be needed).
- Notice of a zoning permit application for an ADU will be sent to adjacent property owners;
In addition, Council will consider in the proposed FY25 budget re-establishing the Rental Property Inspector position.
The City of Fredericksburg conducted an extensive public conversation process with 19 informal community meetings or formal public hearings to develop an accessory dwelling unit (ADU) ordinance to help expand housing options in neighborhoods throughout Fredericksburg. The citizen input from these meetings shaped the proposed amendments to the Zoning Ordinance.
A summary of the process including the analysis completed is here:
Here is a summary table of all the formal public comments submitted either in person or in writing during the public hearings as well as the sign in sheets from the community meetings held on the item:
ADUs were discussed at the City Council's work sessions on June 13, 27, and July 11 with a public hearing on June 27. The public comment session on July 11 also served as a public hearing on this topic.
The City Council is scheduled to vote on a second read of the ordinance on August 8. This meeting will be advertised as a public hearing.
Frequently Asked Questions:
1. What are Accessory Dwelling Units (ADUs)?
ADUs, also commonly referred to as “in-law apartments” or “granny flats” are secondary, independent living units with a separate kitchen, sleeping area and bathroom. ADUs can also be occupied by a limited number of people not related to a family in the principal dwelling on a property. ADUs can assume different forms, for example as basement apartments, converted garages, or new smaller dwelling units detached from a primary residence.
2. Why is the City developing an ADU ordinance?
An ADU ordinance will help expand housing options and affordability in neighborhoods in the city. The City’s Comprehensive Plan includes goals encouraging a variety of housing, infill that is compatible with established neighborhoods in terms of scale and massing, and historic housing types (such as ADUs) to protect and enhance the City’s historic neighborhoods. Additionally, the Area 7 Downtown Small Area Plan calls for the evaluation of ADUs as a tool to ensure City neighborhoods can evolve to meet modern housing needs.
3. How will ADUs impact housing affordability in Fredericksburg?
ADUs have the potential to expand housing supply and choice in the City. ADUs are smaller and have fewer amenities than traditional rental housing options, which increases the likelihood that they would expand housing affordability. ADUs may also help homeowners, including first-time buyers, families with children who need care from a live-in provider, as well as long-time residents, including elderly, remain in Fredericksburg more affordably.
4. How can ADUs facilitate aging in place?
ADUs can enable seniors and persons with disabilities to age safely, comfortably, and more affordably in place by providing on-site housing for caregivers.
5. How can ADUs support homeownership and wealth building?
ADUs allow homeowners to generate new rental income to more comfortably afford their primary residence and increase the value of their property, which creates additional equity.
6. Where will ADUs be allowed?
The City is undertaking a review of ADU ordinances to see what models and practices might work in Fredericksburg. Community engagement will be an important feature of the review. Community engagement, including public meetings to explain ADUs, how they work, and solicit feedback, will begin in February. This process is anticipated to shape where ADUs are allowed.
7. Will the City establish design guidelines and regulations to determine where ADUs can be located on a site and what they can look like?
Yes, as part of the ongoing review process, and future community engagement, guidelines will be refined, including consideration for size, scale, placement and parking. A draft ordinance description is included below as a reference point.
8. Why should I participate in this process?
Your thoughts are needed to help develop an ordinance that adds the flexibility needed to create additional housing while limiting impacts on surrounding neighbors. A draft ordinance description is included below as a reference point.
9. How can I participate in this process?
You can stay informed about the project by following along on the project website (this webpage). Engagement opportunities will be posted on the project website. Community input gathered throughout the process will inform staff’s policy recommendations that will be considered by Planning Commission and City Council.
10. What is the difference between an ADU approval “by-right” or by “special use”?
By-right is permitted in a zoning district after an administrative review to ensure the use complies with any regulatory standards. Special use requires each proposed ADU to go through a public hearing process with the Planning Commission (for a recommendation) and the City Council (to decide whether or not to approve) in addition to compliance with any regulatory standards.
11. Do ADUs have to comply with the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code?
Yes, ADUs must comply with the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code. The City’s Building staff will issue violation notices if they do not.
The Planning Commission of the City of Fredericksburg will hold many in-person meetings to discuss a draft Accessory Dwelling Units ordinance for the ADU ordinance proposal. The public hearings and community meetings scheduled to discuss this item are attached here.
Here is information made available at each of the meetings held so far:
February 8 – Public Hearing Staff Report including information on other localities experience with ADUs, an analysis of the supply and characteristics of neighborhood parking, and anticipated impacts to public services / utilities.
February 14 – A neighborhood meeting was held with the Rising Sun Neighborhood Association at the Central Rappahannock Regional Library (the same handouts from February 11 were provided).
February 22 – Continuation of Planning Commission public hearing. Please see staff report.
February 23 – Community session at 718 Caroline Event Space (6:00); sponsored by Fred 15 / Fossil Free Fredericksburg / the disAbilty Resource Center.
March 8 – Continuation of Planning Commission public hearing. Please see staff report.
March 15 – Community meeting was held at Lafayette Elementary School.
March 22 – Continuation of Planning Commission public hearing. Please see staff report.
April 1 – Community session to be held at the School Board Meeting Room at 210 Ferdinand Street at 10 AM.
April 12 – Continuation of Planning Commission public hearing at 715 Princess Anne Street at 6:30 PM. Please see staff report.
April 19 – Community session to be held at the Police Department Training Room at 2200 Cowan Blvd. at 7 PM
April 26 - Continuation of Planning Commission public hearing at 715 Princess Anne Street at 6:30 PM. Please see staff report.
May 10 – Continuation of Planning Commission public hearing at 715 Princess Anne Street at 6:30 PM. Please see staff report.
June 13 – Work session with the City Council at 715 Princess Anne Street at 5:30 PM. See links above.
June 27 – City Council public hearing at 715 Princess Anne Street at 7:30 PM. Please see staff report.
Here is a draft ordinance for discussion: The City of Fredericksburg proposes amendments to the Unified Development Ordinance to permit and to establish regulations governing the use of Accessory Dwelling Units (ADU) associated with single-family detached dwelling units. An ADU is a secondary dwelling unit established in conjunction with and clearly subordinate to a principal dwelling unit, whether part of the same structure as the principal dwelling unit or as a detached accessory structure on the same lot. The total occupancy permitted within a single family lot (a family and two unrelated persons or no more than three unrelated people total) are not proposed to be changed.
More Information and / or to comment:
Information pertinent to the applications may be examined online on the City’s website at https://www.fredericksburgva.gov/1098/Public-Notices, or by request for a mailed copy. Contact 540-372-1179 to request a mailed copy. Additional information will be available on the City website, by close of business on the Fridays before scheduled meetings. Please check the Public Information page https://www.fredericksburgva.gov/AgendaCenter.
Any written comments submitted on a hearing item, must include the name and address, including zip code, of the commenter, be limited to 5 minutes or less read aloud, and shall be submitted in one of the following ways:
- email to Planning@FredericksburgVA.gov.
- U.S. Mail (PO Box 7447, Fredericksburg, VA 22404) or 601 Caroline Street Suite 400, or
- dropping them in the Community Planning & Building drop off box in the front lobby of 601 Caroline Street marked ATTN: PLANNING COMMISSION
Comments received before 1:30 p.m. on the day of the meeting will be read into the record at the Planning Commission meeting.
Persons requiring accommodations to facilitate participation at the public hearing are encouraged to contact the Planning Services Division at least five (5) days before the meeting.
For questions, please contact Taylor Owen, Administrative Specialist, 540-372-1179.
Additional Information on Accessory Dwelling Units:
- Housing Virginia - ADUs: The Next Little Thing in Affordable Housing Webinar - July 29
- AARP Livable Communities - All About ADUs
- American Planning Association - ADU Knowledgebase Collection
- Accessory Dwellings.org - A "One-Stop" source about ADU's
- Accessory Dwelling Units: A Guide to Accessory Apartments in Charlottesville, VA (2015)
- Community Interview - a Washington, DC Resident and His Father's Experience with ADUs
- Housing America's Older Adults (Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, 2018)
- Secondary Units and Urban Infill: A Literature Review (UCLA, 2011)
- Accessory Dwelling Units: Case Study (HUD, 2008)
- Responding to Changing Households: Regulatory Challenges for Micro-Units and Accessory Dwelling Units (NYU Furman Center, 2014)
- Overcoming Barriers to Building Accessory Dwelling Units
- Accessory Dwelling Units in Alexandria, VA (here)
- Accessory Dwelling Regulations Update - Arlington, VA (here)
- Accessory Dwelling Regulations in Blackburg, VA
- Accessory Dwelling Regulations in Charlottesville, VA
- ADU Comparison Chart
- State of the Market and Local Policy: Accessory Dwelling Units in the Commonwealth of Virginia
- Single-Family Property Owner Location around University of Mary Washington
- Building Code for ADUs Memo